Resistance training includes exercises which cause the muscles to contract against an external resistance. They help to increase strength, tone the muscles, and also help in endurance. One can either make use of body weight for resistance or use external resistance equipment like dumbbells, barbells, exercise tubes, bricks, bottles of water, etc. There are different types of resistance training programs, which differ with the focus of the exercises. When you are designing a program for beginners, or for people who exercise regularly, you will have to take certain factors into consideration.
Design Resistance Training Program
When you design a program for men or women, you will have to keep the fitness goal in mind. For example, a program for weight loss will differ from the one for muscle building. The type and number of exercises, number of sets, repetition, will depend on the fitness goal. While designing a program for endurance, there will be 3 sets of each exercise which will have 15 to 25 repetitions. The rest period between any two sets will not be more than 60 seconds.
If you are designing a training program for weight loss or health and fitness, then the number of sets will be anywhere between 1 and 3, with 10 to 15 repetitions. Similarly, with endurance training program, the rest period will be not more than 60 seconds. If you want to do strength training, then the number of sets will increase, and will be anywhere between 3 and 6. However, the number of repetitions will decrease to 7 to 9 , and the rest period will also be much longer, for about 2 minutes. For a beginner, the endurance and health and fitness programs are appropriate.
After fitness goal, fitness plan is important. In this, the number and type of exercises to be included for each muscle group will have to be decided. For example, if you want to tone or lose weight in the lower body, then you will have to increase the number of exercises for the lower body and reduce the number of exercises for the upper body. This is often the case with resistance training for women. Exercises like squats, lunges, leg raises, kicks, etc., will be more concentrated upon than the exercises for biceps, triceps, back, etc.
On the other hand, when men want to build their biceps and triceps, it is natural, that more focus will be on upper body exercises, for biceps, triceps and chest. If you want to build strength in the legs, then leg exercises will have to be focused upon. This is true of athletes, who have to concentrate on strength in the legs along with stamina. If your fitness goal is stamina, then exercises focusing on stamina will help in reaching the goal.
We will now know the exercises, which can be a part of the program.
- Upper Back: Push ups, pull ups, chin ups, seated rows
- Lower Back: Trunk Extension, plank, superman
- Chest: Bench press, flys, push ups
- Biceps: Curls, push ups, overhead press
- Triceps: Overhead extension, dips
- Shoulders: Lateral raise, front raise, push ups, shrugs, overhead press
- Abdomen: Crunches, trunk twists, plank, reverse crunches, bicycles
- Legs: Leg curl, leg extension, squats, leg press, thigh adduction
- Glutes: Squats, lunges, knee ups, step ups, hip extension
Before you start with these exercises, it is important that you also do some warm up exercises, to prevent injuries. One can make use of different exercise equipment for resistance training, however, body weight is the best option for resistance training. There is also an added advantage of doing these exercises, which is they can be easily done anywhere.